Unrest in Austria- Hungary • 25.5 Nationalist groups in Austria Hungary and the Balkans struggle violently for independence
Uprisings • Remember Napoleon at Waterloo is defeated.... • Congress of Vienna (that is Vienna Austria) rules Europe • Prince Metternich( of Austria) is the man of power • 1848 unrest spreads over Europe (they want liberal reforms)
Uprisings • At that time Hungary was part of Austria • Uprising in Hungary led by native Magyar (nomadic warriors who entered Hungary in 900s) • different language and different culture • Magyars want their own country
Hungary Revolts • Lajos Kossuth - Magyar who led revolt in 1848 • but Austria came down hard on the Magyarians • Russia under Czar Nicholas I sent troops to put down revolt (he feared the revolt would spread to Russia) Revolt fails!
Dual Monarchy • Dual Monarchy! • One common ruler for both Austria and Hungary • Francis Joseph I - king of Hungary and Emperor of Austria • 3 ministers assist him • each country has own Parliament
Dual Monarchy • economically practical Hungary produces agricultural products and raw materials which Austria buys Austria produces industrial goods which Hungary buys
Dual Monarchy • problems remain • different languages • ethnic minorities such as Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Romanians, Poles, Slovenes, Ukrainians, and Italians all live within Austria Hungary • local people still want self government Austria Hungary look towards the Balkans for expansion and power
Ottoman Empire and The Balkans • Ottoman Empire weakening as nationalism rises in their lands • Greece got its independence in 1829
Ottoman Empire and The Balkans • Other empires get involved! • Russia supports Balkan nationalists - many who were fellow Slavs and Orthodox Christians • they also wanted a warm water port! • Great Britian doesn’t want Russia to get that port so they support the Turks/Ottoman rulers
WEIRD! • Weird! Autocratic Russia supports people wanting their own country - supporting mov’ts for independence • Weird! Great Britain - democratic country - supporting repressive Turks - denying people who want to rule their own country. • Why? - Resources!
Congress of Berlin and the Balkan Wars • 1875 Revolts in the Balkans! • 1877 Russia declares war on Ottoman Empire • Turks defeated! • 1878 Treaty of San Stefano
What is the result of the Balkan Wars? • Independence to Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro • Self rule to Bulgaria (but Russia is going to occupy it for a while) • ***Sudden influence of Russia in the Balkans
What is the result of the Balkan Wars? • ***Sudden influence of Russia in the Balkans • Makes major European powers nervous • Other powers force Russia to meet at Congress of Berlin 1878 • topics- territorial independence • Bulgaria kept w/in Ottoman Empire which reduced Russian influence - limits her access to Aegean Sea
What is the result of the Balkan Wars? • Austria governs Bosnia & Herzegovina but can’t add them to their own territory • Great Britian controls/occupies island of Cyprus in the Mediterrean (this gives Britain a naval base in the Med. Sea) • over time Great Britain and Italy each seize Ottoman territory in Africa
1908 Austria breaks with the Congress of Berlin • Austria annexes (takes) Bosnia and Herzegovina. • Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro = Balkan League - declare war on Ottoman Empire and win! • but things are never simple - they end up fighting again!
Why do you care? • by 1913 (eve of World War I) Ottoman Empire in Europe included only the city of Constantinople and enough land to control water route from the Black Sea to the Med. Sea • Bulgaria pals up with Austria • Serbia has growing hostility to Austria (this one is the powder keg!)