….and Spanish rule ends Unrest grows in Texas…
Causes Napoleon kidnaps king of Spain Napoleon’s brother, Joseph, becomes king. Revolutionaries were: small farmers Taxes too high: many forced into peonage (land slavery) to pay debts. Middle class and intellectuals revolting against Napoleon & puppet King. Laws unfair: restrict best jobs to Spanish-born “Peninsulares”
El Grito de Dolores!!!! His famous call for revolt and political change
Why failure?: military Hidalgo’s Army 100,000+ people. Too large to control. Few guns, no training. Spanish Army Smaller- 6,000 men- but organized. Well armed and trained.
Hidalgo: Never captured Mexico City. Needed money and military supplies from Mexico city. Hidalgo and Allende captured and executed Spain Retained capital city. Controlled cash, and arsenals. Leaders remain in control. Why failure?: Politics
The legend: Hidalgo was also known as…..
Cause No gold or silver Political center in Mexico City Land in California and Mexico more fertile Angry Indians Effect No fortune hunters No politicians Few ranchers or farmers Hard for people to survive Why did Spain neglect Texas?
Dead men tell no tales…live ones get into trouble. Gutierrez and Magee
Who was this “Republican Army of the North”? Filibusters and revolutionaries • Tejanos • Spaniards-mostly ex-army types • American volunteers Commanders: • Augustus Magee : ex-US Army • Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara: General under Hidalgo
“Mexicans” A free Mexico Spanish-style gov’t : appoint leaders of the country. Constitution Close ties with ex-Spanish colonies “Americans” • A free Mexico • USA-style gov’t: vote for leaders of the country. • Constitution • Close ties with USA What they wanted
Captured major cities in Texas • (Goliad, Nacogdoches and San Antonio) • Set up trials courts • Captured La Bahia • Defeated Spanish army repeatedly. What the Republicans did
What happened? • Magee dies • Gutierrez fired • Officers changed as policy changed • This meant no stability for Republican govt.
Why Republicans lost • Spanish re-organize • Republicans surrounded by General Arredondo at Battle of Medina • Most killed
The myth and the revolutionary Pirates
Three rebellious “nations” rise up against Spain What they need most is a navy Argentina Republic of Mexico Venezuela
Jean Louis Aury • 1813 North Carolina privateer raids Spanish ships • Venezuela will make him a privateer-a “legal pirate” if he represents them • He does Only known drawing thought to be Aury Venezuela-hires both Aury and Lafitte Aury’s personal flag
Republic of Mexico Mexican pre-revolution flag • Aury also gets Commissioned by Republic of Mexico as….. • “Civil and Military Governor of Texas” • Establishes a privateering base on Galveston Island, Texas in 1816.
While Aury was away Argentina flag -Aury’s • While Aury away raiding New Spain, Jean Laffite takes over the operation at Galveston
Jean Lafitte • Smart businessman • Worked legal system whenever possible • Avoided killing - it was not smart • Joined “Mexico” to act as a privateer – made his robberies legal • Fought for USA in War of 1812 - to get his men pardoned.
Some Americans were not pleased. Then came the Adams Onis Treaty
Futility incarnate…. Dr Long’s Expeditions
Long’s rebellions Background Mississippi Doctor Upset with Adams-Onis giving US land away. Led Several expeditions All failed Came to Texas with army and wife- Jane Long. He did succeed in capturing Nacogdoches. Declared Texas a “free and independent republic”.
Long’s problems • 3 expeditions All failed to free Texas • Long wanted Jean Lafitte’s help • Lafitte refused- • He said Long did not have enough men.
Long’s fate • captured and tried in Mexico, • not imprisoned. • not allowed to leave Mexico City. • “Accidentally” shot and killed.
Long’s legacy He was survived by his strongest supporter, who had been left to guard their “fort” at Bolivar Point.
Jane Long • Followed husband John • Came with teen-age slave, Kian • Kept Indians away by bluffing with a cannon. • Had “the first Anglo child in Texas”
Jane Long • Left when Austin colonists told her husband was dead. • Lived out her days running a hotel . • Died Dec. 30th,1880
Until Mexico became free as well. Freedom for Texas would have to wait…