The seleucid empire takes over judea 201 bce 201 BCE
Antiochus The Third (great) Ruled from 201 BCE – 187 BCE
What are his policies toward the Jews? • Treats them well • Allows them to live according to their ancestral laws • 3 year exemption from taxes so they can rebuild land • Gives power back to the high priest as tax collector • Provides Jews supplies for the Bet Hamikdash, oil, whine, wheat, spices • No not kosher animals permitted in Jerusalem
The Jews • Support Antiochus and welcome his leadership • Gerousia came out to meet him • Jews helped with provisions for the soilders • Helped get rid of Egyptian garrison
Seleucus IV 187 BCE - 175 • Antiochus III son • Continues to allow the Jews to live according to their ancestral laws • Begins to put a heavy tax on the Jews (has to pay off Rome) • Sends his official Heliodorus to confiscate money from the Bet Hamikdash and Onias the High Priest tries to stop him • Heliodorus forces his way into the temple but at the entrance has a vision of a horse with an armed rider and two youths beat him unconcious • Helenized Jews blame Onias • In the mean time Seleucus gets murdered • Antiochus IV Epiphanes takes over and replaces Onias III with his brother Jason
High Priest • Shimon Hatzadik(met Alex the Great) • Eleazar (Ptolemy II – Septuagint) • Onias II (Joseph Ben Tobiad) • Onias III (Seleucus IV) • Jason (Antiochus IV- bribes him to become high priest)
JEWISH HELLENISTS( BEGINNING IN PTOLEMY ERA) • The Tobiad Family • First Jews to maintain contact with Greeks • Head of Hellenizing party • Main instigtors of Hellenistic reform in Jerusalem • Very wealthy and thus influential • Greek habits • Greek names • Took part in drinking parties
JASON(beginning of antiochus IV) • Brother of Onias III • Changed name from joshua to jason • Bribes king Antiochus IV to make him high pries • builds a gymnasium and ephebian in Jerusalem • registers the citizens of Jerusalem as “Antiochenes” • Transforms Jerusalem into a Greek polis and names it Antioch • Introduces gentile customs • Lays the foundation of Hellenistic reform
Menelaus • Brother of simeon • Supported by Tobiad family bc they thought he would have better relationship to king • Bribes King Antiochus with more money than Jason to make him high priest • Menelaus was victorious(hasTobiad support but not peoples) • Steals gold vessels from temple for king and has Onias arrested when he protests this • His brother Lysimachus gathers 3000 soldiers and attacks Jews who are dissatisfied with Menelaus.Lysimachus ends up dieing. • When Gerousia accuse M. as the cause for outbreak he bribes an official to acquit him and Gerousia members get killed.
ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES OR EPIMANES? • Brother of Seleucus IV • Installs Jason as high priest(instead of Onias) • Now two political parties emerge TobiadsvsOnias Hellenists vs Traditionalists • accepts large bribe from Menelaus-a hellenized messenger of Jason)to become high priest • Hears about a civil war btw Jason and Menelaus or btw Jason and Hasidim and storms into Jerusalem to supress the rebellion • He now regards Jerusalem as a hostile city and a threat to his kingdom • Sends military intervention in Judea-kills 40,000 • 167 bce he declares the gezerot –decrees against jews
The groundwork for civil war • Maccabees II -Source book page 38-
169 bce-BEGINNING OF REVOLT • Maccabees I-SOURCE BOOK PAGE 25 Maccabees II- SOURCE BOOK PAGE 39 Reasons for revolt: 1-”unification”-unite his diverse empire into one nation by forcing all members to adopt Greek culture 2-he heard of the jewish rebellion and civil war btw Jason and Menelaus,or Jason and Hasidim and takes away Torah bc that’s the cause of rebellion
Antiochus IV… • Storms into jerusalem • Kills 40,000 and sells 40,000 as slaves • Enters mikdash and loots it-
167 BCE-GezerotHashmadevil decrees • No shabbat • No haggim • No kosher • Burned torah scrolls • No circumcision • Forced to sacrifice to pagan gods • Forced to eat forbidden foods • Desecrated the temple-rededicated it to Zeus • Takes away Rosh Hodesh
15 kislev-idol erected on mizbeach • 25 kislev-began sacrificing hogs on it ***THE DECREES WERE NOT JUST A RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION BUT A GREAT PERIL TO THE EXISTENCE OF THE ENTIRE JEWISH NATION
Religious Martyrdom Maccabees II- Chapter 6-Eleazar Maccabees II- Chapter 7 –mother and seven sons SOURCEBOOK PG 41 Maccabees II-Why this persecution? SOURCEBOOK PG 33 RAMBAM-to die or not to die???
The Hashmonean family MATITYAHU - He is from family of Kohen - He isA leader - He moves from jerusalem to Modiin -Has 5 sons:John(Yohanan),Simon,Judah,Eleazar,Jonathan -Slaughters a Jew who was going to offer sacrifice to pagan god and kills kings officer -He is the initiator of the revolutionary movement -He and his sons abolish the prohibition of self defense on shabbat -Organizes war against the Greeks but dies during the war - Before he dies he appoints Judah to be the military leader Maccabees I -SOURCEBOOK PG 27 -SOURCEBOOK PG 28
RECONQUERING THE TEMPLE • Maccabees I-SOURCEBOOK PAGE 29 SOURCEBOOK PAGE 30 SOURCEBOOK PAGE 40 SOURCEBOOK PAGE 32
JUDAH THE MACCABEE • -MILITARY LEADER • HE DEFEATS APOLLONIUS AND SERON(2 GREEK GENERALS WHO TRIED TO SUPPRESS REBELLION) • LYSIAS WHO WAS KING ANTIOCHUS VICEROY SENDS NICANOR,PTOLEMY,AND GORGIAS BUT HE DEFEATS THEM TWICE. • IN 164 LYSIAS HIMSELF INVADES BUT GIVES UP • 3 YRS AFTER THE DECREES, JUDAH CAPTURES JERUSALEM,PURIFIES THE TEMPLE,AND RESTORES JEWISH RELIGION
Neshanukah • Mikdash is desolate-in ruins • Judah finds loyal kohanim • Builds new mizbeach • Made iron menorah(golden one had been stolen) • 25 kislev-165 bce-3 yrs to the day that the pig was sacrificed judahredadicates the mikdash • Nes with oil-took 8 days to go up north and get olives to make new oil
Partial victory only…. • Parts of yerushalayim and most countryside are still controlled by hellenists • Kohengadol is renegade • No real independence • Most hellenists fled to acra where they stay as traitors for another 23 years • Jews rested for about a year but in north galil and in south jews are being persecuted and murdered • Judah shimon and yonatan fight and defeat but have to transfer jews near yerushalayim
Hasmonaem dynasty:from rebels to kings Judah (died in battle) Yonatan Shimon-first to cal himself nasi-hes high priest and king.Beginning of Hshmonaem dynasty which lasted for 80 yrs. John hyrcanus…….
Mattathias Hasmonean Dynasty Yohanan] (d.159) Simon (142-134) Judah (d.168) Jonathan (152-142) Eleazar (d.163) John Hyrcanus I (134-104) Judah Aristobulus Salome Alexandra Alexander Jannaeus Hyracannus II Aristobulus Alexandra AntigonusMattathias Alexander HEROD 37-5 B.C.E. Aristobulus III Mariame
John Hyrcanus134-104 B.C.E. Pharisees Sadduces
Judah aristobolus 104-103 bce KILLED HIS MOM -IMPRISONED HIS BROTHERS FIRST TO BE TITLED KING!
Alexander Jannaeus 103-76 DISRESPECTED THE LAW ON SUCCOT IN BH AFTER BEING PELTED WITH ETROGIM HE KILLED 6000 JEWS CRUCIFIED 800 PHARISEES AFTER THEIR REVOLT WITH SYRIAS HELP EXPANDED JUDEAN BORDERS
SALOME ALEXANDRA 76-67bce - SHLOM TZION HAMALCA-THE QUEEn WHO BROUGHT PEACE AND JUSTICE -reinstated shimonbenshetah as abbeit din of sanhedrin -SHARED HER REIGN WITH THE SANHEDRIN
HYRCANUS II & ARISTOBULUS IITHE END OF JEWISH INDEPENDENCE • HYRCANUS-THE ELDER SON,EASYGOING,KOHEN GADOL,CLOSE TO THE PHARISEES • Aristobulus-ambitious,jealous,hot tempered ,supported the saduccees, • THEY DISTRUST EACH OTHER AS LEADERS • 63 BCE BOTH ASKED POMPEY [ROME]TO INTERVENE-UH OH!! • ARISTOBULUD BITES OFF HIS BROTHERS EAR SO • HE CAN NO LONGER BE KOHEN GADOL • CIVIL WAR BETWEEN BROTHERS AND RIVAL • POWERS-ROME AND PARTHIA • HYRCANUS HAS ROMAN SUPPORT • ARISTOBULUS HAS PARTHIAN SUPPORT Blemish