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Safer Skies PowerPoint Presentation

Safer Skies

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Safer Skies

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  1. Safer Skies

  2. Takeoff14.5% 86.1% Percentage of All Accidents Descent InitialApproach FinalApproach Landing Landing16.6% Landing16.6% InitialClimb Takeoff Load,Taxi,Unload2.0% Load,Taxi,Unload2.0% 60.9%25% 25.2%2% 1% Descent7.2% Descent7.2% NAVFIX OM InitialClimb10.7% InitialClimb10.7% Climb7.4% Climb7.4% InitialApproach12.3% InitialApproach12.3% FinalApproach24.8% FinalApproach24.8% Takeoff14.5% Cruise4.5% Cruise4.5% 1% 1% Percentage of Flight Time 10% 10% 27% 60% 60% 1% 1% 1% 13% 13% 11% 11% 3% 3% Percentage of All Accidents Percentage of Flight Time

  3. Controlled C F I T Flight Into Terrain

  4. A CFIT accident is one in whichan otherwise-serviceable aircraft under control of the crew,is flown (unintentionally)into terrain, obstacles or water,with no prior awarenesson the part of the crewof the impending collision.

  5. 60% of the commercial airline crashes worldwide,attributable to CFIT,involve aircraft performingnon-precision approaches.

  6. Database of 26,533 accidents… 1260 (4.8%) are CFIT accidents 1/3 of GA accidents are CFIT 32% of these accidents were in IMC.

  7. CFIT accidents have been reduced due to the following factors: COLOR SHADED APPROACH CHARTS GPWS APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FLIGHTCREW “CALLOUTS” WARNINGS AGAINST USING THREE-POINTER ALTIMETERS AND DRUM-POINTER ALTIMETERS And other recommendations by various CFIT task forces.

  8. DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION PURPOSES COLOR SHADED APPROACH CHARTS

  9. MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY GPWS: GroundProximityWarningSystem

  10. Ascertain applicable MSA reference points Confirm altimeter settings by repeating all digits in clearance readbacks - Assure that altimeter is corectly set Utilize and complete all approach checklist items PRIOR to beginning the approach Upon crossing the final approach fix, outer marker, or equivalent position, crosscheck actual crossing altitude against the altitude depicted on the approach chart Be aware of 100’ intervals, during the last 500’ of the approach prior to the MDA or DH FLIGHTCREW “AWARENESS”

  11. Inspite of these recommendations & improvements, recent statistics confirmthat: CFIT ACCIDENTS ARE “HOLDING”AT APPROX 4.8%, and1/3 OF GA ACCIDENTS ARE CFIT.

  12. We can make the system“IDIOT PROOF” But someone will become aBETTER IDIOT !!!

  13. Someone said, “It’s just stupid pilot error” That’s easily solved…. Eliminate stupid pilots !!!!! OR… WE CANTRAIN & TEACH PILOTSNOT TO ACT “STUPID”.

  14. Remember this statistic? CFIT accidents are “holding” at 4.8%,and1/3 of GA accidents are CFIT We can IMPROVE these statistics !!!

  15. ALWAYS assume that this flight will be like the last flight Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  16. DON’T cross-check raw navigation informationbecause the autoflight system always works...no need for monitoring its operation Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  17. Assume the ATC Controller would not “clear” you to do somethingunless it’s correct & safe. Don’t worry about the elevation of the highest terrain or obstaclein the operating area Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  18. Assume the ATC Controller would not “clear” you to do somethingunless it’s correct & safe. As long as you can see the airport, the approach MUST be safe ! Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  19. “BLACK HOLE” ILLUSION

  20. Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  21. Invent your own approach procedures, the approach plates don’t always go where you want to go Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  22. Keep some charts available, current or not - it doesn’t matter Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  23. The bases are always just a few feet lower than minimums, it’s OK to go lower for a “look-see” till we see the ground Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  24. DON’T WORRY about good communications,we’ve done this approach a 100 times before Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  25. The altimeter setting used for take-off, 2-hrs ago,should be OK Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  26. MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY IGNORE the GPWS, it’s just another bothersome horn,and it is sometimes wrong anyway IGNORE the Multi-function, it’s just another distraction during a VFR or IFR approach Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  27. MULTI-FUNCTION DISPLAY Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVE to 100% SOMETIMES WE ACT LIKE “STUPID HUMANS”

  28. YOU CAN BECOME A STATISTIC

  29. Flying into an airport VFR or IFR To avoid CFIT, and for maximum safety, we’ll use the latest technology.

  30. GPS 120 P7LK TPG HTF8 LOP

  31. 4.1 + 3.6 = 7.7 nm (1540’ MSL) / 4.1 nm (1360’ MSL) Minimums: 1360’ MSL Inbound Course: 1990

  32. CRS: 1990 10 nm Scale GPS 120 199 P7LK TPG HTF8 LOP 10 7.0 DME: 7.0 nm GPS APPROACH ARMACTV GPS

  33. 4.1 + 3.6 = 7.7 nm (1540’ MSL) / 4.1 nm (1360’ MSL) Within 7.0 DME, how low can we go? 2900’ 1540’ 1360’

  34. CRS: 1990 10 nm Scale GPS 120 199 P7LK TPG HTF8 LOP 10 4.0 DME: 4.0 nm GPS APPROACH ARMACTV GPS

  35. 4.1 + 3.6 = 7.7 nm (1540’ MSL) / 4.1 nm (1360’ MSL) Within 4.0 DME, how low can we go? 2900’ 1540’ 1360’

  36. 7.0 DME / 1540’ 4.0 DME / 1360’

  37. YOU JUST BECAME A STATISTIC Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  38. MOUTAIN1553’ 7.0 DME / 1540’ 4.0 DME / 1360’ WAYPOINT 7.0 DME / 1540’ 4.0 DME / 1360’

  39. YOU JUST BECAME A STATISTIC Your chances of a CFIT accident IMPROVED to 100%

  40. A CFIT accident implies that: That either the crew did so intentionally, or,they had lost“SITUATIONAL AWARENESS” The crew busted altitude; that is, they were flying the aircraft outside of the airspace in which it is legal to fly in. The crew had flown the aircraft there ... the position wasn't reached because of recovery from an unusual attitude.

  41. LOSS OF“SITUATIONAL AWARNESS” THE CREW DIDN'T KNOW WHERE THEY WERE IN RELATION TO THE GROUND AND THE AIRSPACE THROUGH WHICH THEY WERE FLYING.

  42. SITUATIONAL AWARENESS • Study departure & approach procedure(s) before departure • Use all available aids during the entire flight, ie, VOR, NDB, Marker Beacon, GPS, Moving Map, GPWS • Identify unique enroute terrain features, step-down requirements, approach gradients • Review approach procedures during an Approach Briefing • Know what approach and runway aids are available before initiating an approach (VFR or IFR) Always…….. Use every aid properly, to assist you in determining your position and know the required altitudes at that position.

  43. DON’T BECOME A STATISTIC Your chances of a CFIT accident CAN BE REDUCED !!

  44. Special thanks to: FlightSafety International Flight Safety Foundation U.S. Dept. of Transportation FAA SITUATIONALAWARENESS & VIGALENCE PREVENTS CFIT Produced by John F. Malecki, ASC

  45. That the important CFIT-avoidance benefits provided by the global positioning system/global navigation satellite system (GPS/GNSS) be recognized. ICAO in 1995 cited the urgent need for progress in applying satellite navigation to nonprecision instrument approach procedures. In 1998, ICAO introduced GNSS area navigation procedures. ICAO said that criteria to support basic GNSS operations in all phases of flight are scheduled to be introduced in November 2001. • The task force also recommended that all civil aviation authorities adopt the use of hectopascals for altimeter settings.

  46. That requirements for the use of ground-proximity warning system (GPWS) be broadened. ICAO in 1998 amended its requirement for GPWS to include all aircraft with maximum takeoff weights above12,500 pounds or authorized to carry more than nine passengers;