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Lighting and dark skies PowerPoint Presentation
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Lighting and dark skies

Lighting and dark skies

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Lighting and dark skies

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  1. Campaign for Dark Skies Lighting and dark skies For Cranborne Chase AONB Reaching for the Stars Seminar 6/11/14 Howard Lawrence

  2. Content • Observation – ideal conditions and eye response • Causes of sky glow • Luminaire design • Blue-rich white light • Highways agency specification changes • Domestic / commercial lighting • Checklist for good lighting

  3. Desirable Observing Conditions • Astronomers seek high contrast – very low sky-glow due to (mostly street) lights • Clear skies – no residual vapour trails • Steady seeing – low wind and thermal currents • Good observing site – elevated, accessible, screened from parking / road / stray lights, good amenities • Potential to use dark adapted (& averted) vision Visual and imaging observers have different perspectives. Sky gazers want it all, imagers less concerned with contrast / sky-glow and unlikely to need to become dark adapted

  4. Visual Observation Eye registers full dark to bright sun, luminance range of 1 billion, contrast range only 1000 Photopic colour – daylight, rods and cones Mesoptic colour - twilight, rods and cones illuminated condition – luminance 0.001 to 3 cd/m2 Scotopic monochrome - green/blue sensitive rods mostly levels correspond to moonless night Dark adaption 20 -30 mins, slower for old people Scotopic / Photopic (S/P) ratio is measure of blueness in white light Human eye spectral sensitivity

  5. Sky-glow caused by atmospheric scattering • Mie scattering • All colours • Particles / vapour • Local • Forward & side scattering • Rayleigh • Blue dominant • function is inverse to power of 4 • 16 times more for blue than red • Molecules • Distant / overhead • All round scattering

  6. Poorly aimed street lighting

  7. Sky glow Vs cut-off angle –results from Dr C Baddiley research A 180-100° Critical area for sky glow from within urban areas but proportionally less impact to rural areas. B 100-95° Significant contributor to sky glow, especially in rural areas where it is most aerosol dependent. Less likely to be obstructed. C 99-90° Critical zone for sky glow and obtrusion seen at 10s of km (in rural areas) where it is strongly dependent on aerosol scattering. D 90-70° Significant contributor to sky glow seen at a distance through reflection but reflected light more likely to be obstructed by buildings, trees and topography. E 70-0° Ideal light distribution. A B C D E

  8. Good street lighting

  9. Blue-rich white light • The proportion of blue in the white light is quantified by the Colour Correction Temperature CCT • Many recent white light sources colour temperatures > 5500K • Reflection from grass scatters light into atmosphere • 5 to 8 times more sky glow than orange sodium equivalent • Models predict more sky glow in countryside due to spill from distant cities with new white lights • IDA and CfDS recommends CCT < 3000K • (incandescent domestic bulbs circa 2700K so not proposing mono-chrome orange pink) Extracted from IDA White Paper on BRWL

  10. Highways Agency Draft TD 34/07DESIGN OF ROAD LIGHTING FOR THE STRATEGIC MOTORWAY AND ALL PURPOSE TRUNK ROAD NETWORK • New version nearing publication • Environmental Impact Assessment • Comprises Energy and Carbon Consumption and Dark Sky Preservation assessment factors • Uses results from Dr C Baddiley sky-glow modelling research • Stresses that clients need to supply their own weighting factors for balancing: • Economic • Environmental • zones • Scotopic/Photopic ratio (BS5489-1) • Societal

  11. Highways Agency Draft TD 34/07 ‘Dark Sky Preservation Indicator’ • Calculation starts at 100% with points subtracted for unfriendly features / specs. • Geometry - less than 70° is ‘safe’ otherwise negative • Spectral weighting – points dropped x S/P ratio • Environmental Area – weighted according to GN01:2011 zones E0 – E4 • Luminaire lens profile - rating doubled if not flat glass Fisheye all-sky photo showing milky way over Gloucestershire – C.Baddiley

  12. Highways Agency Draft TD 34/07 Extract ‘The client supplied weighting are designed to reflect society’s values. However, schemes will by their very nature often impact the local stakeholders in a different way to that of the wider society, and, local stakeholders will place different priorities on some aspects of the scheme. Designers need to manage the risk to the client of local stakeholders objecting to the scheme due to light pollution issues, either obtrusive light or sky glow, regardless of the environmental zone as the impact of light pollution can carry for many miles *. While these aspects may often not carry much overall weighting within the assessment, they can be easily and cost effectively managed. The designer should be encouraged to not only to provide excellence of design in terms of the sustainability assessment , but directed to minimise delivery risk by ensuring the scheme is not identified or perceived by local stakeholders as unnecessarily impacting their environment or quality of life.’ *CfDS proposed wording Extracted table from TD34/07

  13. Commercial and Domestic Lighting • Measure can be sold as good practice for both local sky glow reduction and wildlife protection, e.g. moth disorientation, bird migration disruption • Churches could lead by example • Good lighting guide leaflets are provided by some vendors for new installations. • Would retrofit / modification guide be useful? Consistent with ecological principles.

  14. Good Lighting Checklist • Luminaire - modern full cut-off, energy efficient lights, fitted with shields where light trespass is an issue • Colour - warm white or orange colour lights with CCT of less than 3000K • Control - remotely controllable lighting technology allowing lights to be dimmed or turned off completely if local conditions and policies permit • Brightness - the minimum luminous intensity consistent with relevant codes of practice taking care not to over-specify; for example, due to maintenance and colour rendering factors • Design - lighting schemes should be designed by lighting professionals given the brief to minimise sky-glow both locally and into the surrounding country • Community - householders and businesses - guidance to achieve star-quality results by taking extra care when installing flood and other lighting